Interview question

Software testing is a process carried out during the software development life-cycle to ensure that the program is correct and functions as intended. A crucial component of any software development effort is testing. At its core, software testing seeks to solve the following question: How can one be sure that the program performs as intended and doesn’t do anything improper?
The main objective of software testing is to gain sufficient confidence that the program being tested generates the right result for a given input data. 

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This article includes the frequently requested interview questions for a Quality Assurance (QA) or software tester role. It is separated into three components depending on the applicant’s skill set. If you recently graduated from college, you may be requested to complete software testing questions in the fresher’s area to be considered for a junior-level post. The advanced testing subjects are covered in the experienced portion, which presupposes a basic acquaintance with the testing procedure. Finally, there are multiple-choice questions to assess your comprehension of the testing process.

Hence, this article will provide full-fledged knowledge about the Top Interview Questions for the following categories:

  • Top Software Testing Interview Questions for Fresher
  • Top Software Testing Interview Questions for Experienced
  • Top Software Testing Interview Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)

Top Software Testing Interview Questions for Fresher

Question 1: What is Software Testing?software testing

Answer: Software testing includes assessing and confirming the functionality of a software product. In essence, it verifies that the software product is error-free and satisfies the expected criteria. One may argue that testing improves the product’s quality by averting defects, cutting down on development expenses, and minimizing performance problems.

Question 2: Name the different principles of Software Testing.

Answer: Software Testing is generally governed by seven principles, named and explained below:

  • Mistake of an absence of errors: If a piece of software doesn’t meet the needs of the user, it won’t function properly, even with 99% of bugs fixed. Software must satisfy all client requirements and be error-free 99.9% of the time.
  • Testing reveals the existence of errors: Testing can confirm that software has flaws, but it cannot ensure that there are no flaws. Although testing can reduce the number of flaws, it cannot completely eliminate them.
  • Full-fledged Testing is impossible: It is not possible to test the program extensively, meaning that all potential test scenarios cannot be addressed. Only a limited number of test cases are available for testing, and it is presumed that the program will always generate the correct result.
  • Clustering of defects: In most projects, a limited number of modules contain the majority of the faults. The Pareto Principle states that 20% of modules account for 80% of software faults.
  •  Pesticide Paradox: Repeating the same test cases over and over again will never yield new problems. Therefore, in order to discover new issues, it is necessary to update or create new test cases.
  • Early testing: Initial testing is essential for identifying software defects. Defects will be more quickly and affordably recognized in the early phases of the SDLC. Software testing need to begin within the requirement analysis stage of the software development process.
  • Testing is context-dependent: Different testing methodologies which depends upon the software development context. It also includes various factors like its kind as software requires different types of tests. For example: An Android app is tested differently than an ed-tech website.
Question 3: What do you mean by Exploratory Testing?

Answer: In exploratory testing, the tester follows the program’s instructions to travel different routes and functions while interacting with item any way they like. They don’t have any rigid plans in their hands. The main emphasis of exploratory testing is the Behavior Testing. It works Wellford acquainting oneself with new program features. It also offers a high-level overview of the system to assess and rapidly become familiar with the program. Even though exploratory testing appears random in the hands of a knowledgeable and proficient tester, it may be quite effective. Because it’s carried out without any preconceived ideas about what software should or shouldn’t accomplish. The tester has the freedom to find hidden routes and issues along those paths.

Question 4: What do you mean by Unit Testing?

Answer: The process of evaluating a single code unit independently is known as unit testing. A method, class, or module might be the unit of code. The goal of unit testing is to concentrate on the tiniest code components in order to gain confidence before merging them to create fully functional software. A unit test runs the code and compares the actual result to the predicted
outcome. The unit test is successful if the results match what was anticipated. If not, it is unsuccessful.

There are The following characteristics of Unit Testing, explained below :

  • It’s intended to test a single functional component.
  • It is repeatable and completely automated.
  • It must operate fast and offer feedback right away.
  • It ought to be kept apart and should only communicate with other dependencies—like the network, database, or file system—when absolutely necessary.
Question 5: What is a Test Environment?What is test Enviroment

Answer: A test environment can be defined as:

  •  A Test Environment consists of a server or computer that a tester uses to execute their tests.
  •  It aims to simulate the real hardware that the program will operate on in production, distinct from a development machine.
  • The tester runs the regression test suite and upgrades the test environment with the most recent build of the program whenever a new build is made available.
Question 6: What are the different kinds of test coverage techniques?

Answer: The following are some examples of the various test coverage techniques:

  • Statement/Block Coverage: Counts the number of successfully
    tested and executed statements in the source code.
  • Decision/Branch Coverage: This statistic represents the number of
    decision control structures that underwent successful testing and
  • Path Coverage: This guarantees that all potential paths through a given piece of the code are tested.
  • Function coverage: Counts the number of times a function has been run and tested at least once in the source code.
Question 7: Is automation testing helpful when using an agile methodology?

Answer: Automated Testing is quite helpful when the agile methodology is utilized for software testing. It facilitates obtaining the most test coverage, in the shortest amount of sprint time.

Question 8: What is a bug in Software Testing?What-is-a-Bug-in-Software-Testing

Answer: A software bug is a mistake in the program that leads to incorrect output. A software tester runs tests on the program to look for errors. The flaws might be caused by a variety of factors, such as subpar programming, version control issues, bad design, or poor communication. Thousands, or perhaps hundreds of thousands, of bugs are added to the system by developers throughout development. There are several approaches to detecting a problem, regardless of your function, The software developer may discover a defect in a different module—written by themselves or by another developer—while developing the program. The tester actively searches for defects as a part of the standard testing procedure. A bug-tracking system records every bug, regardless of how it was discovered. A software engineer is tasked with fixing problems once a triage team has ranked them and given them a priority. After the issue is fixed, the developer checks the code and marks the bug as ready for testing. When a bug is prepared for testing, it is sent to the tester, who runs tests on the program to confirm that the problem has been repaired. It is closed if it is. If
not, they assign it to the same developer along with a breakdown on how to replicate the problem precisely. Popular bug-tracking programs include ,Fog Bugz, Bug Zilla, and others.

Question 9: What do you mean by Test Plan and what does it includes?

Answer: Essentially, a test plan is an evolving document that is overseen and managed by the testing manager. A well-written test plan that outlines the scope and procedures of software testing is essential to the success of any testing effort. It essentially acts as a plan that details the whole test process, including the what, when, how, and more.

A Test Plan must include the following details:

  • Resource Planning
  • Test Strategy
  • Test Objective
  • Test Deliverables
  • Test Scope
  • Reason for Testing
  • Exit/Suspension Criteria
Question 10: What do you mean by Test Deliverables?

Answer: Test deliverables, sometimes called test artifacts, are essentially a catalog of all the materials, instruments, and other parts that are provided to software project stakeholders throughout the software development life cycle (SDLC). Deliverables for the test are created and maintained to support the test. There are many deliverables at each stage of the SDLC, as listed below:

Before Testing Phase:

  • Test plans document
  • Test cases documents
  • Test Design specifications

In Between the Testing Phase:

  • Test Scripts
  • Simulators.
  • Test Data
  • Test Traceability Matrix
  • Error logs and execution logs

After the Testing Phase:

  • Test Results/reports
  • Defect Report
  • Installation/ Test procedures guidelines
  • Release notes

Question 11: What are some common mistakes that leads to major issued in debugging?

Answer: Some of the common errors are:

  • Inadequate Planning
  •  Undervaluing
  •  Disregarding minor problems
  • Not adhering to the precise procedure
    v.  Inadequate distribution of resources

Question 12: Define some of the popular software testing tools and its framework?

Answer: Some of the popular and widely used software testing frameworks and tools are:

Selenium: Selenium is an automated web browser tool that automates thetest suites that you need to run on a web browser.

Protractor: An end-to-end testing framework for Angular and AngularJSapps is called Protractor. Protractor simulates user interaction with your application by running tests against it in an actual browser.

Cypress: Cypress is a cutting-edge front-end testing tool designed for theinternet of today. Despite sharing similarities with Protractor and Selenium,it differs structurally from both of them.

Jasmine: With this freely available JavaScript testing framework, you can create behavior-driven tests.
JUnit and NUnit: The unit testing frameworks for the Java and C#programming languages are JUnit and NUnit, respectively.

Question 13: Name some defects in the Software Testing?

Answer: A system fault that impedes the planned activity from being completed is referred to as a flaw. When it come so identifying flaws, testing is crucial. Testing must start early since flaws might be discovered at any stage of the development process. Some main defects may fall into three primary groups, as seen in the accompanying figure:
False: It suggests that the requirements were not correctly implemented. This flaw is the outcome of a difference between what was expected and the requirements.
Missing: This denotes the failure to apply a specification or the improper documentation of a customer demand.

Extra: In this instance, the product’s inherent demand that was not supplied by the end user is what led to the problem.

Question 14: What do you mean by Latent defect and Masked defect?

Answer: Latent Defects: Some flaws that exist but have not yet been brought to light due to unfulfilled prerequisites are known as Latent defects. It is a systematic problem that affects the software’s whole manufacturing process, including all pre-production and extended testing. Masked Defects: Defects that are hidden from execution by another fault prevent the piece of the code that is causing the masking from causing failure. It can only be found when the user performs a certain operation that exposés the fault that is hiding it. Certain flaws are indicated or concealed by another flaw and stay undetected until the other flaw is found.

Question 15: What is the purpose of TestNG?

Answer: The TestNG framework for Java is an open-source and sophisticated test automation platform that helps developers and testers alike. The goal of TestNG is to give automated tests a user-friendly, understandable, organized, maintainable, and easy-to-use environment. In TestNG, NG stands for “Next Generation.” Cross-browser testing is made easier by high-end annotations like data providers, which allow you to teston many browsers and devices. In addition, the framework has a built-inmatehood for managing exceptions which keeps the software from ending suddenly.

Question 16: How may test cases be prioritized in TestNG the most effectively?testNG

Answer: Creating a priority order that can help you in focusing the order inwhich your test methods are performed. As a result, the test will run according to the specified priority.

Question 17: What are the useful procedures to take in order to fix problems during testing?

Answer: Some issues that can be resolved during testing with the help of these steps:

  • Record: Monitor and address any issues that come up.
  • Report: Let senior management know about the problems.
  • Control: Create a procedure for handling problems

Question 18: Name some categories of Testing?

Answer: There are the following types of Software Testing:

Functional Testing

Types Description
Unit Testing It is an internal test conducted programmatically on a method or function within a larger code block.
Stress Testing It guarantees the multiple components of systems as anticipated when they are ready to produce a work.
Usability Testing It verifies that recent code modifications haven't damaged any previously working functionalities.
System Testing To ensure that the entire system functions as intended, comprehensive end-to-end testing is performed on the program
User- Acceptance Testing It verifies that the program satisfies the needs of the users or clients. Usually, this is the final stage before the program is put into production, or goes live

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